Friday, May 22, 2020

The abolition of slavery in Africa and the Middle East Essay

The abolition of slavery in Africa and the Middle East can be seen from different perspectives. One of them, it is from the international pressure to abolish slavery in Africa and Middle East. The British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society, was one of the most active institutions in looking for suppression of slavery, in India, Africa and the Middle East.2 They pushed to British government to take direct actions in abolish Indian slavery, and indirect actions on non-European regions were slavery was common. In the Muslim world and in some extent to the East African Coast, the abolition was seen as a imposition from outside.3 Therefore, resistance to the imposition of such measures was very clear for some contemporary scholars. In 1869†¦show more content†¦The Western civilizatory mission can not accept slave work in a world in which the progress and the humanity it was characterized by freedom and wage labor.9 Actually, the end of slavery in Africa was one of the motivations of the scramble of Africa. Colonialism was a way to overcome the savagery and bring natives to progress and civilization through wage labor and production for the market.10 Once the colonial rule was established and slavery legally abolished, images of benign slavery were a way to keep good relations with the local rulers. On the other hand, new systems of coerced legal labor were imposed on local populations, the extreme case was the Belgian Congo: Liberation was a euphemism for a mixture of kidnapping, exploitation of prisoners and runaways, requisitioning of inhabitants of newly subjugated regions, holding hostage recalcitrant rubber tappers or their kin, tribal heads handing over under duress (with or without receiving payment) payment to the colonial authorities contingents of their subjects, etc.11 Therefore, diplomatic attempts to abolish the slave trade and slavery in Africa, quickly became in military occupations and colonization. On the East African Coast, the abolitionist pressure faced an strong resistance, and the terms of abolition were expressed within the religious framework.12 TheShow MoreRelatedThe Narrative Of The Life Of Olandah Equiano1716 Words   |  7 Pagesprovides a view of Africa and the rest of the world from the perspective of either an African taken into slavery early in his life or a slave of African descent born in the British colonies. Olandah Equiano’s narrative reveals more about the African Diaspora than it does African history itself, particularly with his birthplace called into question. If he was born in Africa as he claims, Equiano’s narrative provides a primary source for the history of the slave trade in Africa and Nigerian historyRead MoreReshaping Slavery to Make it Legal for Muslims Essay1235 Words   |  5 Pagesmilitia. The East African slave trade provided the temporary labour until the First World War.†2 It is remarkable the combination of several forms of slavery and coerced labor in the labor market.3 The economic change and the rising demand of slaves from East Africa had several impacts in the supply and reception areas. Large number of pawned and bonded labor in Africa faced a changes in their condition, and were exported away their homes. On the other hand, a new understanding of slavery took placeRead MoreWhy Did Slave Trading Intensify in Nineteenth-Century East Africa?1103 Words   |  5 PagesDuring the 19th century the East Africa was marked by the sadness event of slave trading in response to larger demanding markets. For a long time the exportation of slaves was made through the Red Sea and Indian Ocean to supply the Muslin world. However there was a greatly expansion of slave trades to the Atlantic ocean during 19th century. The slave trading increase during the 19th century due to the fact that the exportation of slaves was a profitable business, more than five times the export ofRead MoreThe Impact of Slavery on African Society Essay1149 Words   |  5 PagesThe Impact of Slavery on African Society Slavery has played a strong role in African society from as early as prehistoric times, continuing to the modern era. Early slavery within Africa was a common practice in many societies, and was very central to the country’s economy. Beginning around the 7th century, two groups of non-African slave traders significantly altered the traditional African forms of slavery that had been practiced in the past. Native Africans were now being forced to leave theRead MoreDbq: American and Muslim Slaveries1164 Words   |  5 PagesDocument-based Question: American and Muslim Slaveries Slavery is as old as the world s first civilizations. Two important slave movements were the one across the Sahara Desert and another along the East African coasts of the Indian Ocean, both of which terminated in slave markets in the Muslim world. The subject of slavery is viewed in contrast by different parts of the world. Narrowing to the topic of slavery in the Americas and the Muslim states, it is apparent that the two regions containRead MoreEssay about Atlantic Slave Trade1519 Words   |  7 Pagesworld. The author gives a regulation from West Africa to as far as the Arabic region along southern parts of the Mediterranean Sea into a lesser degree talks about the Arabic slave trade in East Africa, this period profound economic, social, political, cultural, religious, and military change. I strongly agree with how the authors attempted to explain the circumstances under which the African enslavement occurred in Africa through the dismay Middle Passage and sale of the slaves in America. A briefRead MoreA Study Of African History1384 Words   |  6 Pagesthink slavery happened after a group of explores from Portuguese started ring the coast of West Africa, but little do they know African Americans were trading themselves way before then. Portuguese explorer Prince Henry, known as the navigator, was the first European to methodically explore Africa and the oceanic to the Indies.[1] Many Europeans thought that Africa s history was not important. They argued that Africans were inferior to Europeans and they used this to help justify slavery. HoweverRead MoreLegacies Of Displacement Of The United States1156 Words   |  5 PagesLegacies of depopulation and the Abolition of Slavery   The forced migration of African slaves led to depopulation in certain areas of Africa and other pressing problems. The slaves that were shipped off, generally speaking were young and strong. In the future, they would’ve played an integral role in supporting their families and communities, however due to being slaves they were no longer able to do that. Consequently, many communities and families were shattered. When slavery was abolished, colonies thatRead MoreTrans Atlantic Slave Trade1892 Words   |  8 PagesCaribbean History Caribbean Economy and Slavery Several West African Societies were well organized and quite prosperous before the coming of the Europeans. Since the time of the slave trade many theories point out that Africa is the cradle of civilization, it is the birth place of the human race. We should never believe the Eurocentric view that Africa was a dark continent inhabited by uncivilized savages pretending to be humans. False and negative views of Africa and Africans were used to justifyRead MoreThe Abolition Of The Brazilian Slaves Essay3208 Words   |  13 PagesThe Abolition of the Brazilian Slaves Slavery in the Americas started with Christopher Columbus at the end of his first voyage, west of the Atlantic. When Columbus saw the Indians (as he called them) and he thought they would make great servants to overlords in Europe. The author writes, â€Å"he promised to bring Ferdinand and Isabella as many slaves as they required† (Nowara 10). This was a suitable proposition because the lifestyle of slavery was already embedded in the minds of the Europeans during

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130 Free Essays

string(38) " is a question I have longed to know\." World Religions Report on Catholicism HUM/130 By Sally Navarro This paper is to inform the reader about the religion called Catholicism. This religion had spanned the trials and tribulations of time, and been throughout history as the only religion held sacred to the followers of this faith. The following will be told about the religion that I have found from a believer/follower of this faith. We will write a custom essay sample on World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130 or any similar topic only for you Order Now I will tell you about the interviewer, the interview site, what the interview contains. Also, I will be writing about how this religion compares and contrasts to the religion of my faith, which is Christianity. Catholic Mass The mass I went to was very interesting. In this because, upon entering the Sanctuary, there is the Holy Water well, that the faithful dip, their fingers into, and make a cross motion on their forehead. The Holy Water is for the faithful in remembrance of their baptism, and rejects Satan. The faithful answer to several Hail Mary prayers before the start of the service; they prep their hearts and minds for mass. Throughout the service, there was constant standing, sitting, and kneeling while the Priest prepared the sacrament, or the Eucharist, commonly called communion of the last supper. During this ritual, there were members of the congregation that assisted with the body of Christ, and the Blood of Christ, in dispensing them to other members of this parish. At the beginning of the mass, the altar boys and girls accompany the Priest into the sanctuary, where the altar boy is carrying a crucifix, the Priest is behind him, and there is the person carrying the bible, holding it in the air. For every ritual the Catholics have, there seems to be a prayer for that ritual. In the constant standing and sitting and kneeling, Father Weibel called this â€Å"Catholic Calisthenics,† (Father Weibel, St. Wendelin Catholic Parish 2009). The Priest opens his sermon with a joke, followed by a brief sermon about Jesus and his love for us. The entire mass lasted about 45 minutes, less than the typical Christian service, which is about an hour. At the end of the service, there was a ritual where there is bell ringing and they put their hands over their hearts, I do not know what this is for, but I did forget to ask. The service ended with the Priest saying, â€Å"This mass is now over, go and be with God! † Name The interviewee is Brenda Campbell. She is in her late 30’s has two school age daughters. She is also married, and works at the College Co-operative. This is where college students from around the area can come to study, take tests, and look up reference information while in a quiet, study-oriented room with 8-10 computers. I asked her to give this interview if she has the time, and she jokingly said, â€Å"Anything for you Sally! † So, I could not get an interview at the Catholic Parish itself, so I had to settle with interviewing her at her job, since I am a student registered there at the Library to use those services. Interview summary In this interview summary is the responses to the10 questions I had prepared for Mrs. Campbell. Several of these questions have long answers, I will provide the answers in short summaries where possible, and being careful not to leave out the root or context of the response. If this happens, then the underlying meaning of the answer has been lost. In the opening question, I asked Brenda a simple, yet a beneficial question to this paper. I asked her â€Å"what are the foundations of Catholicism, and where did its beliefs originate? † Her reply is rather short and to the point of no explanation, she says â€Å"the Catholic church is a continuation of the Christian community which was founded by Saint Peter. The beliefs of Catholics are based on the Bible and traditions long handed down from the times of the apostles. † I found this interesting, because I did not know that Catholicism was a branch of the Christian faith, nor did I know that Saint Peter founded the Catholic Church. Brenda gave a laugh when she told me that I was right, when I said I was ignorant to the Religion of Catholicism. In the second question I gave to Brenda which reads as â€Å"Why is the Virgin Mary, mother of Jesus held as sacred to believers of this faith? Brenda’s response shows how logically and true to believers when she says â€Å"The main reason for this is that she is the mother of Jesus. Secondly, there was a moment that the Angel Gabriel came to Mary at a very young age and at that moment she completely gave herself to God. With her acceptance of God’s will for us and her willingness to give herself fully and unconditionally to God is an example to everyone. † This shows me that giving one’s self to God is easy, but then it is hard to stay in that mission. But, Christian groups believe that Mary was just a vehicle for Jesus, who is the true messiah to the faithful. The third question is one that has been debated for years between two groups of Christian denominations. The Jehovah’s Witness do not believe in the Holy Trinity, as for the Catholics and the Christians do believe in this doctrine. When I asked Brenda this question she says that the† Trinity is made up of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. The followers of Catholicism believe they are three persons under one God head, representing the presence and the power of God. I have also heard it referred to as â€Å"team God,† This means all three the same, but in different beings. Christians have believed this all a long time, but how can they be the same, and different at the same time? Did Jesus raise himself from his grave? Here is a question I have longed to know. You read "World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130" in category "Papers" The question involves the use of altar boys/girls and their purpose in the service of Catholics. The question I posed to Brenda is â€Å"What is the purpose of Altar boys and girls during the ritual of service? † Brenda replies in a simplistic answer, â€Å"Their roles are to assist the clergy when the service is being held. They have a supporting role in tasks at the altar such as fetching and carrying communion cups, holding the Bible for the clergy reading from it, and ringing of the altar bells. † This ritual in the Catholic Church seems to be a lot to understand when one has never been to a Catholic service before. So many players (roles) are involved for the service ritual to take place. In some Christian services, there are the uses of liturgists, normally people who rotate this duty to join the congregation in faith by reading together certain passages from the bible. The CCD classes, or commonly referred to as followers of this faith as being Confraternity of Christian Doctrine. Brenda points out that the reason form this is the youth need to learn, and understand the basic teachings of the Catholic Church. The reason for this, she says is â€Å"the school age children need to understand and learn the roots of their faith. † Just as one new to the world of Christianity would need to go to bible study to understand the word of God, and the teachings of Jesus, to fully understand what Christianity is and means. Also, instilling these root beliefs will aid them in the future by giving them moral beliefs. In the Presbyterian Church, there is a class called new members class, which is the same as the Catholics, as in to the roots of the belief. When one enters the Catholic faith, and gets some understanding about this faith, they have a duty to go to confession. When I asked Brenda about confession, and what the purpose of confession is she sums it up in another simple answer. Confession, what is the purpose of confession, and what does it help the confessor deal with? She said, â€Å"The purpose of Confession or reconciliation is to provide healing to the soul of the confessor. This means to regain the grace of God that is lost by sin. After confession, the Priest gives the confessor the forgiveness of sins. But, in Christianity, the only one who can forgive sins is God, through Jesus, who died for our sins according to the Bible. Priesthood, this is a very powerful topic in the sense of being a communicator to the almighty, and having power to tell the confessor that God forgives you for your sins. Does the priest or Father have that kind of authority to say this? I will let you make the decision on this question. The topic of how one becomes a Father or Priest came up in the discussion with Brenda, and she tells me how one a Father or Priest becomes. In becoming a Father, or Priest, the first step is internal discernment, which means one must discover their call and act on it. After understanding and determining their calling, they must attend seminary for four years. This is no different than what ministers and other preachers would do to answer their call to God’s work. She also says that they can do this as well as go to college, but all must complete four years of college and four years of seminary. Upon completion of seminary, the one who completed seminary would go to a Catholic church to serve as a deacon for a six month appointment. There is something that is equally needed in both Christianity, and Catholicism. That there is the answer to God calling one, and the need to go to Seminary, or Bible College to obtain the knowledge of God’s word to spread the message of God’s will for humanity. Here is a ritual that I have no understanding about. I asked Brenda what the name of this ritual was but she must not have heard me. The question I said to Brenda was, â€Å"the blessing action that the Priest gives, what is the name of this ritual, and what does it symbolize? She answers, â€Å"The Priest is using incense to create smoke that comes out of the chalice. This represents purification and sanctification. The smoke is to represent the prayers that are being lifted up to heaven with the smoke. I understand this to be a purification ritual of some sorts, by the actions of the priest. He goes around in a underhanded motion to gently move the chalice back and fourth among the congregation, while blessing them and lifting their prayers up to heaven. I thought that God hears all our prayers? The Christians, like the Jehovah’s Witness believes that all prayers go to heaven without the use of incense, and prayed through Jesus. This brings us to the ritual of communion. What this means and what this does is in the followers of this belief. The disciple’s last meal with Jesus is remembered by the Last supper. In describing this, Brenda says that this is the way we remember what Christ has done for us. This is our way of participating in the body of Christ, that we become one with him and as members of his church. As Jesus said to his disciples, that they are to take of his body, to cleanse the soul, prepare the way for Christ to enter the their heart, by asking for forgiveness before they partake in the ritual of communion, also known as the sacrament to some other Christian beliefs. In closing of the interview with Brenda Campbell, there was one last question I had for her, which may be the biggest one I wanted to know the answer to. I asked Brenda â€Å"Is it easy to convert to the Catholic religion? How and what would someone have to do to be converted to the Catholic religion? In a very lengthy response Brenda says, â€Å"Converting to the Catholic faith is a very big deal. In becoming a catholic means that the converter consents to all the church teachings. † She also says with conversion, there is work and faith for her members, which translates to me that there is to be service work and spreading the word of the lord to others as well. She also continues to say, â€Å"One is expected to avail themselves to the sacraments regularly, as well as to attend a four to seven month class called RCIA, or Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults. This,† she says, is for the development of a solid grounding in the Catholic faith. â€Å"Before one gets initiated into the Catholic Church, this involves Reconciliation, Baptisms, and confirmation into the Catholic faith. This is a lot to go through to convert to the Catholic belief. This is more than other Christian denominations do for them to be members of certain churches. I know this to be true in a Christian church back where I used to live. Where the preacher asked someone to come down or has a decision to make today, that he invites them down and pray with him and tell him what you need. This person went down during the invitation song, prayed with the preacher and after the song was over, he gave a brief description of what this person did to end up at that church and after that, the preacher turned to the person who joined the church and asked him a few questions. One of the questions the preacher asked the person joining the church was at the end. The preacher asks the person do you accept Jesus Christ as you personal Lord and savior, the person answered, yes. After that, this person was a member of the First Christian church. That is a big difference form just confessing faith in the lord to become a member of the Christian Church, and how much more time is needed to become a member of the Catholic Church. Conclusion The difference between Christian and Catholic is Mary. The Catholics believe Mary is sacred, and the Christians believe that Mary is the mother of Jesus, which is true, but Jesus is the Messiah not Mary. References Father Weibel 2009 St. Wendelin Catholic Parish Brenda Campbell, 2009, St. Mary’s Catholic Parish, www. inplainsight. org 2009 How to cite World Religions Report on Catholicism Hum/130, Papers

Sunday, April 26, 2020

Pierre De Fermat Essays - Integer Sequences, Additive Number Theory

Pierre De Fermat Pierre de Fermat Pierre de Fermat was born in the year 1601 in Beaumont-de-Lomages, France. Mr. Fermat's education began in 1631. He was home schooled. Mr. Fermat was a single man through his life. Pierre de Fermat, like many mathematicians of the early 17th century, found solutions to the four major problems that created a form of math called calculus. Before Sir Isaac Newton was even born, Fermat found a method for finding the tangent to a curve. He tried different ways in math to improve the system. This was his occupation. Mr. Fermat was a good scholar, and amused himself by restoring the work of Apollonius on plane loci. Mr. Fermat published only a few papers in his lifetime and gave no systematic exposition of his methods. He had a habit of scribbling notes in the margins of books or in letters rather than publishing them. He was modest because he thought if he published his theorems the people would not believe them. He did not seem to have the intention to publish his papers. It is probable that he revised his notes as the occasion required. His published works represent the final form of his research, and therefore cannot be dated earlier than 1660. Mr. Pierre de Fermat discovered many things in his lifetime. Some things that he did include: -If p is a prime and a is a prime to p then ap-1-1 is divisible by p, that is, ap-1-1=0 (mod p). The proof of this, first given by Euler, was known quite well. A more general theorem is that a0-(n)-1=0 (mod n), where a is prime to n and p(n) is the number of integers less than n and prime to it. -An odd prime number can be expressed as the difference of two square integers in only one way. Fermat's proof is as follows. Let n be prime, and suppose it is equal to x2 -y2 that is, to (x+y)(x-y). Now, by hypothesis, the only basic, integral factors of n and n and unity, hence x+y=n and x-y=1. Solving these equations we get x=1 /2 (n+1) and y=1 /2(n-1). -He gave a proof of the statement made by Diophantus that the sum of the squares of two numbers cannot be the form of 4n-1. He added a corollary which I take to mean that it is impossible that the product of a square and a prime form 4n-1[even if multiplied by a number that is prime to the latter], can be either a square or the sum of two squares. For example, 44 is a multiple of 11(which is of the form 4 x 3 - 1) by 4, therefore it cannot be expressed as the sum of two squares. He also stated that a number of the form a2 +b2, where a is prime b, cannot be divided by a prime of the form 4n-1. -Every prime of the form 4n+1 is accurate as the sum of two squares. This problem was first solved by Euler, who showed that a number of the form 2(4n+1) can be always showen as the sum of two squares, of course it was Mr. Pierre de Fermat. -If a, b, c, are integers, a2 + b2= c2, then ab cannot be a square. Lagrange solved this. - The determination of a number x such that x2n+1 may be squared, where n is a given integer which is not squared. Lagrange gave a solution of this also. -There is only one integral solution of the equation x2 +4=y3. The required solutions are clearly for the first equation x=5, and for the second equation x=2and x=11. This question was issued as a challenge to the English mathematicians Wallis and Digby. -No basic values of x, y, z can be found to satisfy the equation xn+yn=zn; if n is an integer greater than 2. This thesis has achieved extraordinary celebrity from the fact that no general demonstration of it has been given, but there is no reason to doubt that this true. -Fermat also discovered the general theorem that was on the guess that a number can be found into the product of powers of primes in only one way. These were some interesting things that Mr. Fermat did in his life. During Mr. Fermat's life many things happened as world events. First Ludolph Van Ceulen died, there is a site dedicated to this long-ignored mathematician, who spent his entire life, approximating Pi to 35 places. Then Blaise Pascal lived

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Totalitarian essays

Totalitarian essays LUJHANIS is based on technological advances making LUJHANIS a better society to live in. Society is the totality of social relationships among humans, a group of humans mostly well-known from other groups by mutual interest, participation in characteristic relationships, shared institutions, and culture. The one who will make the rules in our society will be the enforcer, the enforcer makes the rules for us to follow. The rules are very easy to follow not that much like The Giver. We, the society decide on who should be the enforcer, a trial is held and whoever wants to be the enforcer has to give their reasons and ideas, if your reasons are good and the society likes your new rules, or leadership you are the enforcer. Some of the rules that our society have are: 1. Dont break the law 2. Have responsibilities 3. Language that can be considered offensive on a basis of Sex, race, religion, creed, or national origin would not be Tolerated 4. Any attempts to undermine, or cause harm to LUJHANIS you will be doing time in prison. If someone breaks the rules they would be thrown in prison. In prison there is a maximum security and no way to get out, because there are video cameras watching 24/7 peoples every moves. The subjects that would be required to learn are the usual like: math, literacy, history, and science, etc... The subject that our community would emphasize is technology. Technology would be taught a little more, because the community is based on technological advances. Ages that would attend would be from six through seventeen, six is first grade, and at age seventeen is twelve grades. The education system is different from other education system, because our education system would have great tec ...

Monday, March 2, 2020

Benefits of Reading Aloud

Benefits of Reading Aloud Reading  hasnt always been a silent activity and  the experience of reading aloud can be enjoyed by people at any age. Back in the fourth century, tongues started wagging when Augustine of Hippo walked in on Ambrose, the bishop of Milan, and found him . . . reading to himself: When he read, his eyes scanned the page and his heart sought out the meaning, but his voice was silent and his tongue was still. Anyone could approach him freely and guests were not commonly announced, so that often, when we came to visit him, we found him reading like this in silence, for he never read aloud.(St. Augustine, The Confessions, c. 397-400) Whether Augustine was impressed or appalled by the bishops reading habits remains a matter of scholarly dispute. Whats clear is that earlier in our history silent reading was considered a rare achievement. In our time, even the phrase silent reading must strike many adults as odd, even redundant. After all, silently is the way most of us have been reading since the age of five or six. Nevertheless, in the comfort of our own homes, cubicles, and classrooms, there are both pleasures and benefits in reading aloud. Two particular advantages come to mind. Benefits of Reading Aloud Read Aloud to Revise Your Own ProseReading a draft aloud may enable us to hear problems (of tone, emphasis, syntax) that our eyes alone might not detect. The trouble may lie in a sentence that gets twisted on our tongue or in a single word that rings a false note. As Isaac Asimov once said, Either it sounds right or it doesnt sound right. So if we find ourselves stumbling over a passage, its likely that our readers will be similarly distracted or confused. Time then to recast the sentence or seek a more appropriate word.Read Aloud to Savor the Prose of Great WritersIn his superb book Analyzing Prose (Continuum, 2003), rhetorician Richard Lanham advocates reading good prose out loud as a daily practice to counter the bureaucratic, unvoiced, asocial official style that anesthetizes so many of us in the workplace. The distinctive voices of great writers invite us to listen as well as to read. When young writers ask for advice on how to develop their own distinctive voices, we usually say, Keep reading, keep writing, and keep listening. To do all three effectively, it certainly helps to read out loud.

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Physical Education Observation Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Physical Education Observation - Coursework Example Girls would just do the best they could without much pressure. This sounds more like gender biasness but in her defense, she thought that boys’ games were more physical than that of girls. Therefore, boys would need more energy as well as tactics to improve their game. The coach had excellent instructional cues, for instance, when she wanted to remind a certain player to focus on the ball, see where it is moving towards, and when to intercept and catch it. She would tell them to focus on the game. Another observation on instructional cue was reminding the players to absorb the force of a thrown ball and catching without dropping it. Here she would tell them to create a soft home. The coach also had many positive feedbacks to both teams. This worked so positively to the kids as they felt motivated and excited for more exercises as well as competitive games. Through such feedbacks, the coach brought the team together and it looked united despite the diversity among every student. Due to these impacts, the coach did not receive any criticism from the players or other coaching staff because the team was developing so

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Starbucks and Mcdonalds Research Proposal Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Starbucks and Mcdonalds - Research Proposal Example Data and information should be on the last three to five years for consistency in the use of statistics and comparative figures. Whatever strategies were deemed more effective, as practiced, together with validated support from other authoritative sources would be used to recommend future strategies to improve revenues, market share and profits for both organizations. A review of related literature is proposed to be included as part of the research to contain information on past researches conducted for both Starbucks and McDonalds for the last three to five years. Comparative information would be gathered, evaluated and integrated to focus on strategies on products, price, place and promotions. Findings would therefore be written on which particular strategies were deemed most effective in both organizations and if these strategies can still be used to improve on the organizations’ performance. A review of external factors that influence future performance of these organizations would also be presented prior to